When you eat, some of your food is broken down into sugar(also called glucose) which in turn increases the blood sugar level. Normally healthy people body produces ‘Insulin’ hormone which decreases the blood sugar level to normal level. In people with type 2, diabetes production of this insulin is not enough to maintain the sugar level. In peple with type 1 diabetes body has been stopped producing the insulin harmone.
High blood glucose level is also called as Hyperglycemia. Glucose is the main source of energy for our body which generates after the intake of food. Generally, our glucose level increases after breakfast, lunch or dinner resulting in high blood sugar level.
The harmone Insulin is produced by Beta cells in Pancreas. Our body has an automotive system which generates Insulin whenever there is a hike in blood sugar level. When the insulin generated by the body is not sufficient or body is not able to produce Insulin on its own then that
Blood sugar level will be different in the different time of the day. As already said, blood sugar level increases after food intake. Hence while fasting our body blood sugar will be comparatively low, rises immediately after having food, goes down after 2-3 hours of food intake.
It is very important to check the blood sugar at all above condition for the proper analysis of Diabetes. Below list shows blood sugar levels in Normal, prediabetic and Diabetic condition.
Healthy blood sugar levels:
1) While fasting (Overnight) >=100mg/dL
2) 2 hrs After meal < 140mg/dL
3) Bedtime < 120 mg/dL
Prediabetic blood sugar levels:
1) While fasting (Overnight)between 100mg/dL and 125mg/dL
2) 2 hrs After meal between 140mg/dL and 180mg/dL
3) Bedtime between 120 mg/dL and
Diabetec blood sugar levels:
1) While fasting (Overnight) < 100mg/dL
2) 2 hrs After meal > 140mg/dL
3) Bedtime > 120 mg/dL
There are two types of Diabetes type 1 & type 2. Type 1 generally occurs in people aged above 60. Type 2 is the most comman in adults where insulin can be produced within the body with some of the alternative majors, which we will talk little later.
When the body is not able to produce insulin at all then it is ‘Type 1 Diabetes’, In this case, Insulin is given externally to patients. When the insulin produced by the body is not sufficient to level the blood sugar then it is ‘Type 2 Diabetes’.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Early stages of Diabetes symptom are so mild that you don’t even notice them. People who can recognize the symptom and start medication as easy as possible are lucky, especially in Type-2 Diabetes. Some of the common in Type 1 & Type 2 are;
1) Increased Apetite & Fatigue: Body converts food into Glucose which is the ultimate source of energy. Insulin plays major role in bringing glucose to cells. If Insulin is not enough or is not generating in body then this glucose will remain in blood. Hence you will feel more and more hungry and tired than usual.
2) More thirsty & excessive urination: Due to excessive sugar build up in the blood, kidneys are forced to work (filter & absorb)overtime to process this sugar. If Kidneys can’t keep up then this sugar is excreted into the urine, dragging fluids from body tissues. This leads to frequent urination which results in dehydration. As a result you will start drinking more water.
3) Weight Loss: Rapid weight loss is one of the main symptom of diabetes. Losing sugar through frequent urination leads to losing calories. Most of the sugar(energy) from the food is kept away from blood cells leading to constant hunger. All together results in rapid weight loss.
4) Slow-healing sores or frequent infections: This is the most common symptom observed in Diabetes. If you get any sore or infection it takes lot of days to heal. Even though it might heal with the help of some ointments but it will come again. High blood sugar weakens the natural body healing system.
5) Tingling: Excess sugar in blood leads to nerve damage. as a result you might feel tingling in hands & feets. This may also leade to loss of sensation. Hence doctors check patients feet as a regular diabetic checkup.
6) Blurred Vision: Excess sugar leads to accumulation of sugar in eye retina. When the fluid from body tissues are pulled to keep the body hydrated, fluid from eye lens tissue also will be pulled. This affects ability to focus hence the result is blurred vision.
I’m diabetic now. What is next?
Relax! Breathe in, breathe out. Once diagnosed, people start surfing internet about Diabetes and freak out. Tell yourself that you are not alone! Diabetes is not harmful if you follow diet regularly.
First thing you need to do is to stop sugar intake. Your body is already producing excess sugar hence avoiding sugar is the first step to maintain sugar level.
Don’t be lazy. It is a daily hassle and cannot be avoided. Follow these simple steps daily to lead balanced and happy diabetic life.
If you don’t burn calories with physical exercise then your blood fat increases to a danger level. Higher blood sugar may lead to DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis).DKA is the build-up of Ketones in the blood. Ketones are produced when the body uses fat for energy instead of Sugar. DKA is mainly a problem for people with type 1 diabetes.
High blood sugar can happen if you eat more than usual, less physical ativity, skipping medication, stress and sickness. In such situation, you will feel the symptoms of diabetes such as hunger, thirst, blurry vision etc.
Precautions when blood sugar goes too high or too low.
Rapid variation in blood sugar level is not good for health. You must take care that your blood sugar shouldn’t be too low or too high. Sugar level in Diabetic patients goes very quickly if you are hungry for a long time or skipping meals. You are advised to eat right quantity of food, neither less nor more.
If you feel your blood sugar is high then immediately check the blood sugar level. If it is within the goal range at that particular time of the day then you are good. If not check your ketones (DKA) too.
ketones in your urine or blood are a sign that your insulin too low. Take medicine (as advised) to bring down the sugar level. Make sure your meal doesn’t have carbos which might spike the sugar level.
Don’t panic if the blood sugar goes lesser than minimum range. Drink orange juice and lay down until you feel better. Low blood sugar level means no energy in the body, you will feel weak, tired and stressed.